Neutralise free radicals by donating their electrons / Prevent skin damage due to oxidative stress / preserve the structure and function of the skin
The benefits of having Antioxidants in your skin care are paramount; they help to fight free radicals damage, which is of the most destructive internal process to cause skin ageing. Antioxidants are naturally occurring compounds capable of preventing damage to cells due to exposure to oxygen.
All molecules are made up of protons, neurons and electrons, and electrons must be paired up in order to properly function. Free radical damage occurs when an electron is lost from an oxygen molecule, which is now called a free radical. Free radicals cause mutation and damage to cell DNA through oxidation – in essence the free radical burns and destroys the other cell. This process prevents the production of collagen, slows the skin’s ability to heal and creates malformed cells.
Antioxidants limit free-radical damage by donating their electrons to unstable oxygen molecules, so that they are once again stable. Antioxidants prevent degradation of natural ingredients (proteins, sugars, lipids) in the cosmetic product, and protect the skin cells from being damaged and slow down the aging process. Antioxidants have been shown to boost the skin's radiance, minimize age spots, sun spots, and fine lines.
Vitamins A, B, C, E
Vitamins offer various benefits to the skin as suppression of pigmentation & bruising, anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effects, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant effect is particularly appreciated since free radicals generated by UV light or pollutants are effectively neutralized and no longer able to damage skin cells. Vitamins can therefore significantly improve the performance of cosmetic and personal care products.
Alpha & Beta Hydroxy Acids
speed cellular turnover / increase the exfoliation of dead skin cells to reveal a more youthful complexion /
Protein & Peptides
Just to name a few : Dipeptide, tripeptide, tetrapeptide (4 amino acids), pentapeptide, hexapeptide, Polypeptides, Neuropeptides, Oligopeptides.
Peptides are chains of amino acids that are the building blocks of proteins (collagen, keratin & elastin ) in the skin. One important protein in our skin is collagen. Collagen gives our skin its thickness and suppleness. When collagen breaks down in our skin due to age, environmental factors and stress, wrinkles are formed, and when this happens the collagen releases peptides to signal the fibroblasts to stimulate new collagen, but as we age the collagen production slows down. By applying certain peptides directly on to our skin they penetrate the top layer and send signals to the fibroblasts to stimulate more collagen. Its away to trick your skin into thinking that it has lost collagen and needs to make more collagen, elastin and other proteins in the dermis. Peptides not only help stimulate collagen growth, but they also deliver copper into the skin, which can help the skin heal faster. Since microscopic ingredients in peptide for skin care strategies can penetrate deep into the skin layers, these amino acid chains help heal the skin faster than many other types of product.
There are many types of enzymes, but mainly used for exfoliation and anti-inflammation. Certain enzymes are effective exfoliants and can be gentler than other methods like scrubs and microdermabrasion. The upper layer of the skin is mostly made of dead skin cells containing keratin protein. The enzymes work by specifically breaking down the keratin protein, resulting in smoother skin. Fruit enzymes like papain (papaya), pineapple or blueberry are my favorites.
Humectants & Glucides
Humectants (moisturizers) are the key ingredients to prevent moisture loss and also have the ability to actively attract moisture to the skin. There is a large variety of very different compounds providing moisturzing effects including proteins, acids, polysaccharides, and various small molecules (e.g. glycerine, sodium PCA and Aloe vera etc)
Sodium Hyaluronate moisturising agent capable of binding 1,800 times its own weight in water.